The original Japanese meaning for the term anime is quite simply, "cartoon". They will use it for any animated feature, be it a movie or a TV show.
In English, we've kind of already got a word like that ("cartoon"), meaning we will probably only use the Japanese term to refer to Japanese animation (similar to how "manga" generally refers explicitly to Japanese comics.)
The problem is to, to what exactly does "anime" refer? Does it refer to: - Any animation that is made purely by Japanese individuals or within the physical confines of Japan regardless of anything; - Any visual art that resembles a "typical" Japanese animation's art style (e.g. simplified coloring and large eyes with contrasting eyelashes sorta like I draw); - Something else
DRACO'S EXTREMELY LOUD OPINION
WITH WHICH NO ONE IS REQUIRED TO AGREE BUT I'M SURE NOT SUGARCOATING IT
There is absolutely no meaning to the condition of where something is from. If the same output is generated from one location as from another, these should not be regarded as different things, except in the context where that itself is vital to the study at hand (in evolutionary biology, "where something is from" explicitly and necessarily changes the end product, which is simply not true for art forms)
As such, "anime" does not need to literally be from Japan so long as it maintains the great majority of traits associated with animation from Japan, although its country of origin should be specified whenever plausible because...
... the country of origin will provide a cultural contribution - but this applies to absolutely everything. It would be silly to create separate words for individual works of art from every single last country...
... unless those forms of art have specific traits that cause them to stand out, in which case one is literally naming the art form for its traits as all art forms should be. The only trait unique to anime is its art style. Everything else about it is found in absolutely everything from Japan and many things that aren't, and those other traits are not consistent in the first place. Therefore, anything that follows the same art style can be called anime - it would be called so for the same reasons that anime is
Furthermore, English dictionaries leave an awful lot of room for this to be the case:
Notice they DO NOT SAY "an animation from Japan" or even "a style of animation unique to Japan", which they would say if it was at all important that anime only be from Japan.
Which it's not so they don't so they don't because it isn't. The Chinese invented stir-frying, which is therefore a Chinese style of cooking, but it is not at all unique to China because everybody else does it too.